Lactation is the end-product of a long process that involves laying a foundation and then building upon that foundation during each pregnancy. The process can be affected by hormonal, environmental, and pregnancy factors. This talk lays a foundation for understanding the implications of various conditions. By the end of this session, participants will be able to identify some of these risk factors for milk supply problems and have a better understanding of what to expect and how to help the mother in her situation. Note to conference organizers: this talk overlaps with the Hypoplasia talk.